Most Likely Cause

Although the steps below are comprehensive, in most cases, the reason for an Err1 or E-1 are aged elements. You can almost be sure of this if the kiln has been slowing down gradually. At some point in the process of aging the elements just don't have enough power to do their job. The second most common reason is a worn out relay. This is easy to diagnose with the paper test linked below.

Possible Reasons for E-1 (or Err1)

NOTE: E- 1 errors read as "Err1" on controls manufactured before 2006

  • If you see an E-1 or Err1, then for some reason the kiln could not generate enough heat to counter the heat loss. If one of the elements or one of the circuits in the control fails while the kiln is at a high enough temperature, then it will probably display an Err8 code (which means temperature is falling when it should be rising)
  • Err1 or Err8 can mean either you need new elements or a new component in one of
Incorrect Loading
  • If your kiln is loaded unevenly it can cause the 3-zone control to slow the kiln down to compensate.
  • Try evening out the load. A common mistake is to put too much heavy work in the bottom of the kiln.
  • Also try to space the bottom shelves so that there are two elements inbetween the shelves. This allows as much of the heat to be transmitted to the work.
  • Bad or Wrong Voltage
  • Check your voltage. Do this at the kiln at the Power Terminal Block with the control panel open or check it at your fused disconnect box. CAUTION: This test should only be done by an experienced person familiar with electricity and its dangers. You need to see what the voltage is when the kiln is firing. Low voltage will make the kiln fire considerably slower. For instance a kiln designed for 240 volts will have 25% less power when operated on 208 volts. Check voltage at your panel and where the kiln is connected. Check the voltage when the kiln is
  • A customer writes: I have the Vent-Sure from L&L...great product. When firing glazes what is a good temp to turn off the vent so kiln can hit target temp in my case 2190 Deg F. Do glazes off-gas after say 2000 degrees? Is there a general temperature to turn off vent?


    • Generally speaking it is best for your kiln to leave the Vent-Sure on for the entire time the kiln is heating up. Mostly this is to get all of the corrosive fumes before they get to your elements, wiring, and other metal parts of the kiln.
    • You can leave it on for the cooling as well if you need it to cool off more quickly.
    • Usually a slower cool-down is preferred though, so often the fan is turned off for the cool-down.
    • High-fire clays and glazes out-gas until the kiln begins to cool. Once the glaze has set, and the clay has vitrified no more gasses escape.
    • The heat in a red-hot kiln is almost all radiant heat. The hotter the kiln gets,

    It is possible to convert a J230 manual kiln into a JD230 automatic kiln. 

    What Parts You Will Need

    (1) L-G-PC50/72 50 amp power cord (1) L-A-P300/31 Complete control box (3) T-G-E800/00 8 gauge TCs (3) T-G-MKIT/00 TC mounting kits (3) T-G-TUBE/00 TC protection tubes (3) L-J-JC36/20 20 amp Jumper Cords (3) L-G-JMP6/00 Element box jumper wires (1) C-G-PEEP/00 Peep hole plug

    Highly recommended: (6) E-E-23TX/31 Stronger 48 amp elements

    What These Parts Do
  • It is highly recommended to replace the elements with new 48 amp Easy-Fire Elements. You can only use these elements if you have a 60 amp circuit breaker for the kiln.
  • The jumper cords are necessary because your old ones are not long enough to reach the outlets on the new control box. These outlets are on the side of the box now rather than on the bottom.
  • The jumper wires are replaced routinely whenever you replace the jumper cords.
  • Peep
  • This question gets asked a lot around the holidays. L&L's official line on cooling the kiln is leave it alone until it reaches 200F, then you can open it and unload it.

    However, I have heard of all sorts of different cooling practices, and there are up and downsides to each. The upside is obviously a faster cooldown. The downsides are things like possibly cracking pieces in the kiln, possibly cracking the kiln's firebricks or lid/ floor slab, crazing (fine network of cracks) the surfaces of glazed ware etc. Here is how I was taught to cool the kiln back in school:

    • First leave all the peephole plugs in until you cool off to about 1000F, at that point you can remove them. Put them somewhere safe and non-flammable.
    • Put a non-flammable 1" prop (kiln post or better yet a chunk of firebrick if you have one) under the lid in the front of the kiln around 500F or 600F.
    • Listen carefully for any pinging sounds. Pinging means

    In a word- No.

  • All surfaces within 3 feet of the kiln need to be fireproof.
  • If you are going to locate the kiln somewhere that there will be non-fire-proof surfaces you can make them fireproof by covering them with cement board.
  • Cement board comes in 4' x 8' sheets usually from Home Depot type places. It is used under tile floors and walls to cement the tile to. The thicker, more rigid style is better.
  • Leaving a 1" gap behind the cement board on a wall will really help to keep the heat away from the wall.
  • More difficult to put a 1" gap under the board for the floor. A double layer of board on the floor is best.
  • The board(s) on the floor should extend at least 12" out from the footprint of the kiln. You can even make it look nice and cement some tile over it all.
  • another idea is to put cinderblocks under the kiln as shown in the photograph of an old kiln on a wood floor.
  • Yes - there is no problem putting a smaller element in a larger holder. Just be careful on the first firing so that the element doesn't come out of the holder while it is still "springy". Once the element has "relaxed" it will be fine.

    • You can try to restart the kiln after getting an error code.
    • Some messages, like flashing ErrP and FAIL, will not necessarily turn off the kiln.
    • Depending on the problem, re-starting it may or may not let it finish the firing, or it may not even be able to start up again.
    • An Errd will usually not re-start easily because the temperature top to bottom is drastically different.
    • An Err1 at the end of the firing will re-start but will probably re-occur in about 22 minutes.
    • A FAIL message will not go away even if the problem is fixed during the firing. The kiln will still be firing with the FAIL message flashing along with the number of the TC that failed. Stopping and then re-starting the kiln after fixing the problem with the TC circuit is the only way to erase the FAIL message and continue firing.
    • ErrP flashing with the temperature means that the kiln is still firing, after just a short power outage or interference. Just press

    Question: We received this semester a DaVinci 2327-D and I'm hoping you can help us with some venting questions.

    When our kiln room was set up, the designers created a vent system which linked all three kilns via flexible ductwork to a main duct with a large fan system and we assumed we would vent this new kiln the same way the last one was.  The duct connects to the lower rear side of the kiln, (as opposed to under the floor) similar to the Bailey venting system.

    In the manual we received with this kiln, the Vent-Sure Vent System is shown, and now the HVAC folks here, having seen that manual, say they will only hook that system up because that's what's in the book.  But is seems to me that other than being mounted on the bottom, it's not much different.

    Can you offer a suggestion or opinion about this. I certainly understand the efficiency of the Vent-Sure Vent, but as ours are linked, does it sound like we should add your system in? Since the fan

    A customer writes:

    I have several e28-T kilns. I'm considering buying the Advancer kiln shelves made for the electric kiln. I like the idea of less density, lighter weight, and no warping. We fire all kilns almost every other day, they are heavily used. Do you have any input on using these new shelves in this model?


    Advancer shelves are great - just very expensive. If you can afford them, go for the investment. Do be sure to keep them totally dry because if they get water in them they can explode.

    Where to get Advancer shelves

    L&L does not carry these shelves because they are so expensive and they are a specialty item. The major retail outlet in the US can be found at this link: Click Here. Some other major distributors may have these.

    It is fine to go through a roof with the L&L Vent-Sure kiln fumes vent system.

  • So long as you keep the fan motor within 60 feet of the kiln, and minimise the number of elbows, it will be fine.
  • You may need to hardwire the fan motor as the power cord it comes with has an in-line on/ off switch.
  • Air temperature in the duct is less thean 150F.
  • Remember this is a vent just for the corrosive fumes that come out of clay and glazes when they are fired. This vent system will do nothing to exhaust heat. If this is a small room you will need additional exhaust venting for the heat.
  • Sometimes when you press the Bisque or Glaze button on the One-Touch control you are not able to change the options. The control does nothing.

    Couple of possibilities here...

    First is that the kiln must be on the IDLE screen when the Bisque or the Glaze button is pressed and held down. If the screen reads something besides IDLE, then pressing the Bisque or Glaze buttons will do nothing.

    If you are on the IDLE screen, you press and hold Bisque or Glaze, and nothing happens- it still just says IDLE and the temperature- then try it again. Press and hold Bisque or Glaze again for longer than 5 seconds. If it still does not change, the controller must be replaced.

    One thing to note- if you press and hold Bisque or Glaze, and it does change to where you can change what the Bisque or Glaze program is, you only have a few seconds to change things there before the display times out and goes back to IDLE.

    I notice the temperature on the display is saying 121F. It's not 121 in the studio. An independent Pyrometer says 80F. There is no error message on display. Did I do something wrong?

    See this:
    There is an 18 Deg F offset programmed into the control to compensate for the thermocouple protection tube. Nothing is wrong - just assume the control won't be accurate at room temperature.

    Even though you know the kiln is not that hot: this indicates a thermocouple failure.

  • Check thermocouple end. Examine end carefully. Sometimes there can be a crack that opens up while the kiln is hot but appears to be normal when the kiln is cold. If the end of the thermocouple looks severely corroded and you are getting Error codes then it is best to replace the thermocouple.
  • Check thermocouple circuit. For instance check to make sure that all the thermocouple lead wires are firmly connected. Check where the thermocouple lead wires go into the ends of the thermocouples. Are the wires loose? Tighten the screws on the ends of the thermocouples to be sure you have a tight connection. Check for corrosion. Check where the thermocouples connect to the DynaTrol. Try pulling off each connection and reseating it. This can scrape away corrosion that may have built up. Check for melted wires.
  • A very easy check is to check resistance (ohms). Remove the
  • The molecules of air (which expand during the heating of the kiln) do not carry many BTUs. The hottest the air gets at the output of the motor is about 140°F. Moreover the heat quickly disipates as the vented air moves beyond the output of the motor. It is not much more than a dryer vent.

    However, the final decision to use an insulated or heat-isolated device through a wall is up to the individual installer and must follow any local codes. 

    • You should vent a test kiln if your regular kiln is vented.
    • You want to recreate as closely as possible everything in the test kiln that is happening in the regular kiln in order to get real feedback from what you are testing.
    • Any electric kiln will benefit from a vent.
    • You can hook up the Vent-Sure to the Doll Kilns.
    • About a 1/8" hole on the .5 cubic foot Doll Kiln should be sufficient.
    • Before you purchase oil, check to be sure that you do not have a motor with sealed bearings.
    • A motor with sealed bearings is permanently lubricated and does not require oil.
    • If you have this type of motor there will not be any oil ports on the motor in which to add oil.
    • The only motor that we have used that requires oil has a label on it that says Dayton Model 4C446. If you have this model, any lubricating oil will work including 3 in 1 oil found in every hardware store.

    If the controller is in the limit state (i.e. LMT flashing in the display), you must use the Up Arrow button to raise the Setpoint above the current temperature reading. Then press the Start/Stop/Enter button on the right to Reset the control.

    Once the kiln is properly calibrated after the test firing, it will fire very reliably for many firings.  The digital controller achieves this reliability by constantly comparing the thermocouple (TC) readings to the program that it is following.  Having multiple TCs in the kiln makes this a redundant operation as well. While calibration issues like firing a little too hot or cool are common, it is very rare to hear that someone seriously overfired a digital L&L kiln.

    That said, there are still a few ways to seriously overfire the kiln that the controller cannot prevent. Here are some examples:

    Stuck relay
    • The relay is told by the controller when to turn power on and off to the elements. It makes the clicking sound in the control box
    • If the relay sticks closed- fails and stays on all the time- it will not turn off from the lack of a signal from the controller, like it should. Even when the controller says the program is complete or

    Specifically this error code means that during a cooling segment in the programmed firing, one of the thermocouple temperatures is more than 50 degrees above the set point for longer than 18 seconds.

    In other words, the kiln is cooling off. The programmed rate of cooling is lets say 400 degrees F per hour. This is the rate of descent that the set point will travel as it moves through the program.

    The DynaTrol tries to get the thermocouple readings to follow the set point. It does this by turning the different kiln sections on or off.

    There is a limitation to how quickly the kiln can respond to a change in the set point’s behavior. Normally this does not matter, but during a controlled cool down, if the set point cools faster than the natural rate of the kiln cooling, it can be enough to set off the E- 4 (E-4).

    Typically E- 4 (E-4) will be seen by glass artists, or by people using a two step slow cooling for pottery.


    One of the most difficult kiln performance problems to address is a problem with the electrical supply to the kiln. The apparent symptoms might be an Error 1 (E1), sluggish heat up, or poorly fired work.

    Kilns are designed to operate at particular voltages. Typically (in the US) this is either 240 or 208 volts although it can be 480 volts (mostly industrial) In many non-US locations 380 volts/220 volts is common. Just because a circuit box is labeled for a particular voltage does not mean it can deliver that voltage consistently.

    A kiln is a large resistive load that will pull a lot of electricity. When you turn the kiln on the voltage will decrease. Voltage can be compared to water pressure. Imagine a water hose that is full where the nozzle is turned off or down. There is lots of pressure in the hose making it rather stiff. As soon as you open the nozzle the hose goes slack – because the pressure goes down. In the same way when you turn on the kiln chances are

    An element connection can begin to glow if it is overheating. There are a few ways this can happen.

    If different materials were used in the element connection ... like if you went to the hardware store and got regular zinc plated washers, bolts, or nuts to replace the high temperature stainless steel hardware, OR if you used hardware store wire terminals instead of factory high temp wire terminals in the connection point.

    If the connection point is not tight enough... A loose or even a somewhat snug connection there can overheat from not enough surface area contacting between the parts. Element connection points must be as tight as they can be (without stripping it).

    If the element tail is wrapped too many times around the bolt... One wrap only, with no overlap. Snip off the excess element wire. The element tail gets hot too so the more times it wraps around the bolt, the hotter the bolt gets.

    You will need to replace the bolt and

    tC FAIL tC alternating with FAIL

    Indicates the thermocouple has failed. Replace the defective thermocouple. To clear the error, press any key.
    Errd Displayed whenever the kiln temperature is 100°F (38°C) above the traveling set-point, which is the current desired temperature in the kiln. The traveling set-point will increase or decrease according to the programmed rate.


    Displayed whenever the kiln temperature is rising during an up ramp slower than 15°F/hr. (9°C/hr) If this rate continues for 8 minutes the firing will be stopped. Err1 may be an indication that the elements are worn or that a relay has stopped working.


    Displayed whenever there is a power interruption that is long enough to stop the firing. If the power interruption is brief, the kiln will continue to fire when power is restored; in this case, there will be no indication of a power failure. To clear the error, press any key.


    Displayed whenever the kiln

    Can't get your Genesis controller to connect to your WiFi network?

    There are a few things to check to help remedy the problem and get your controller's WiFi up and running.

    Using the WiFi opens up new possibilities with the Genesis controller. Not only does it allow for software updates as soon as they are available, but users can also send firing info to a computer on the same network. Bartlett has an app available to allow for remote monitoring of your kiln as well.

    To get your WiFi up and running, check these few things:

  • Make sure the WiFi signal strength is good. If the signal strength is very poor, the Genesis will have a hard time connecting.
  • When you have issues with WiFi are you getting a red exclamation point? If so the WiFi on the controller is working properly and is connected to your router. The issue is not getting data in or out from the internet. This normally comes down to restarting the router.
  • Ensure that
  • To Toggle Error Codes On and Off

    The OTHER button contains a menu which contains many of the different user-programmable settings. As you press OTHER again and again the menu will scroll by. You can press REVIEW SEG to go backwards in the menu. NOTE: You can not access the Other menus while the control is firing a program.

    ERCd - Used to turn ON or turn OFF the error codes. When you receive your Dynatrol the error codes are turned on. In most cases, you will want the error codes on. They can be turned off if you are doing special firings, such as jewelry or glass firing where the kiln is opened while hot. Turning the error codes off turns off the dynamic zone control feature that keeps the temperature in the kiln even top to bottom. It eliminates nuisance shut downs but side also eliminates built in fail-safe measures that help prevent mistakes.

    Turn the error codes off.


    Circuit Breakers
    • Circuit breakers that have tripped and have been reset continually will be more apt to trip at a lower amperage than they are rated for. They get worn out.
    • A breaker in a small kiln room will trip sooner because of the higher ambient temperature.
    • An inductive amp meter will indicate whether the kiln is pulling more amperage than the breaker allows.
    • Remember to size it for 125% of the total amp load.
    Wire Size Too Small
    • Using a wire size that is too small for the amperage draw will cause the wire and conduit to heat up and the voltage to the kiln will drop.
    • Voltage will be lost in the form of heat.  The breaker can trip from the local heat.
    • Without a properly sized breaker, the connection points can start to corrode and this may cause an electrical fire.
    • Any visible corrosion in an electrical circuit- especially on a plug and receptacle connection - will result in heat

    Your Jupiter, DaVinci, or Doll kiln will have its elements either wired in parallel or wired in series. The quickest way to tell the difference is look at the element terminal board and note how many terminal bolts are present.

    On kilns with two elements per ring, J(D)1800 or J(D)2300 series Jupiter kilns, elements wired in parallel will have two terminal bolts on the element terminal board while elements wired in series will have three terminal bolts.

    On kilns with three elements per ring, J(D)2900 series Jupiter kilns and all DaVinci and Doll kilns, elements wired in parallel will have two terminal bolts on the element terminal board while elements wired in series will have four terminal bolts.

    For further confirmation, compare the related pdfs to the physical element wiring on your kiln.

    A Relay May Be Stuck Shut
  • All computerized kilns use relays to cycle the power on and off to the kiln sections.
  • If one of those relays sticks shut, power will go to the kiln all the time.
  • All L&L Kilns relays and contactors are of a type called "normally open", meaning when there is no power coming to their electro-magnetic coil their electric contacts are open and not allowing power through.
  • If a relay overheats, its contacts they can weld themselves shut causing power to pass through them even when the kiln is off.
  • How to Tell For Sure
  • When the kiln is cold, keep the toggle switch off and plug in the kiln.
  • Can you hear the electricity hum in the elements?
  • Wait a minute, can you feel heat from any of the elements? If so, which ones? (be careful not to actually touch them).
  • Whichever elements come on, replace that section's relay.
  • Usually this means a relay is stuck on and needs to be replaced.

  • On 3-phase kilns, and on any kilns that pull more than 48 amps, only the power needed to turn on the relays passes through the kiln-sitter. The power to turn the elements on passes through the relays, but not through the kiln-sitter in these kilns.  This is why the kiln-sitter can be tripped off and you can still have one kiln section staying on.
  • If a relay is on when there is power coming to the kiln, even when that kiln section's switch or the kiln sitter is off, usually it means that the contacts have welded themselves shut and even when everything else (except the breaker) is off, the relay will not turn it off.
  • Contacts weld themselves shut for a number of reasons like misalignment, age, corrosion, cycling too fast etc. Really though, it is because they get too hot.
  • Whenever any contacts open and shut, there is a little spark of electricity right before/ after they shut/
  • When packed, the thermocouples on the Jupiter JD and DaVinci kilns are mounted to the kiln sections without the thermocouple lead wire attached. This is because the panel is packed separately.

    During assembly the customer must connect the thermocouple lead wire to the thermocouple. It is easily possible for the customer to connect the wires up backwards. It is also possible that the wires were connected to the DynaTrol backwards. The terminals on the back of the DynaTrol are clearly marked RED as is the negative wire in the thermocouple lead wire. However, we do test every kiln with a thermocouple test which makes this second possibility unlikely - but not impossible.

    See this link about E-22 and E-6 error codes.

    The Kiln Sitter Tube assembly should stick into the kiln about 1". This will allow air to circulate around the cone and allow it to have a more accurate representation of the kiln temperature.

    We typically provide either two or three 1/2" ceramic spacers between the Kiln Sitter and the kiln. This allows for adjustment of the depth of the Kiln Sitter Tube Assembly.

    With the Jupiter kilns, when packed, the Kiln sitter is attached to the panel which is packed separately from the kiln body. We drill the hole in the kiln body and predrill the 4 screw holes for mounting the kiln sitter to the kiln section. We provide the spacers and mounting screws and the customer is responsible for mounting the kiln sitter.

    There is a slight difference between an Orton Kiln Sitter and a Dawson Kiln sitter tube length with the Orton being slightly shorter. Therefore it is possible, if using the three 1/2" spacers that we would normally use on a Dawson Kiln Sitter, that the tube

  • There is an option to add time to the end of the program that appears when you enter a program. Usually, there is no need for more than a few minutes of holding at the end. A hold allows the ware in the center of the kiln to achieve the same "heatwork" as the ware on the edges of the shelves. Heatwork is achieved by a combination of time and temperature (more time and/or more temp equal more heatwork... (heatwork can be thought of as the 'energy' that is given to the ware by the kiln, which ultimately bends the cone and melts the glaze). You can have too much heatwork- i.e. overfire the clay- if you have too much hold at the end, or go to too high a temperature. You can also overfire by climbing too slowly at the end of the firing. If you add more TIME by climbing slower or adding a hold, you must reduce the TEMP you are firing to... If you add more TEMP (by going to a hotter temp), you must reduce the amount of TIME by climbing up to temp faster.
  • The nice thing
  • When to inspect the kiln sitter
  • Kiln-sitters need to be adjusted and inspected before the first firing and then again every 10 firings or so.
  • Many people do not realize this inspection is necessary.
  • How to Inspect the Kiln Sitter
  • Insert the firing gauge onto the end of the tube assembly inside the kiln when the kiln is cold. This is the little coin-shaped piece of metal that holds the sensing rod in perfect relationship with the cone supports. It comes on the kiln-sitter tube assembly inside the kiln on every new kiln and on every replacement tube assembly. This piece is mandatory. Get a new one from any pottery equipment supplier if you do not have it. (L&L no longer carries replacement parts or sitters).
  • Check the position of the release claw/ sensing rod in relation to the guide plate. Look on the outside, in the front of the kiln-sitter, where the other end of the sensing rod is attached to the release claw and sticks out of the slot in the
  • There are three different ways to control the cooling rate on the DynaTrol.

    Method A

    In this method, you enter a Vary-fire program to a cone number that includes a down-ramping segment(s) following the last heating segment. (see more below).

    To use Method A, first define what you want the kiln to do in degrees per hour.

    Example: Heat from room temp to 250°F at 150°F per hour, then heat to 1950°F at 400°F per hour, then heat to Cone 6 at 108°F per hour, then cool to 1400°F at 150°F per hour.

  • To program this press and see the following (In the chart below- # = a number. First is what you press, followed after the '/' by what you will see, followed by comments in parentheses. Program segments 1,2,3,4 are in their own paragraphs) (this is an example)
  • From IDLE, press and see:
  • ENTER PROG / USER-# (There are 6 empty slots to put programs in, called User1-6.)
  • 1, ENTER / SEG-# (Each program can have up
  • On the DynaTrol you will need to use the Vary-Fire programming. On a 3-button Bartlett or 4-button One-Touch enter a custom program.

    Here is an example:

  • 3 segments in USR 1
  • 60°F per hour up to 180°F hold 6 hours
  • 100°F per hour up to 1945°F (^04), 0 hold
  • 100°F per hour down to 1200°F, 0 hold
  • After your kiln has fired press the REVIEW PROGRAM button. You will see, along with other information, the final cone that the kiln was fired to (on an Easy-Fire program) and the final temperature that was reached in degrees.

    This information will stay in the control UNTIL a new program is entered into the main memory or until you start to fire any program.

    The outlets are numbered on the side of the control box. In this example below all the outlets are assumed to be numbered 1-5 top to bottom, or 1-4 top to bottom or 1-3 top to bottom.

    To Fire with 5 sections (Up to Cone 10)
  • Regardless of the numbers on the kiln sections' power cords, plug what's now the top section into outlet #1 on the control box.
  • Plug the upper-middle section into outlet #2.
  • Plug the middle section into outlet #3.
  • Plug the lower middle section into outlet #4.
  • Plug the bottom section into outlet #5.
  • TC wire with the little #1 on the end of it goes to whichever thermocouple is now in the top section. TC 2 wire goes to the middle section, and TC3 wire goes to the bottom section.
  • To fire with 4 sections (Up to Cone 10)
  • Remove a section with no thermocouple in it.
  • Regardless of the numbers on the kiln sections' power cords, plug what's now the top section into outlet #1 on the
  • Remove the lid. Open it first to remove the spring-loaded connections to the front of the lid. Use two people to lower it. When you remove the hinge rod, try to remember the order of the washers and tubes in relation to the lid and counter-balance. A digital camera may help this. Set the lid off to the side leaning against a wall.
  • Unscrew the yellow thermocouple wires from the thermocouples. Unplug all the section power cords from the control tower.
  •  Lift off the top two kiln sections and set them aside. Keep the one with the thermocouple accessible- this is section #1.
  • Remove the screws connecting the top two arms of the counter-balance from what is now the top section of the kiln. Leave the bottom two arms connected to the bottom kiln section. You may need someone to stand there and help support the entire counter-balance.
  • Take the next two kiln sections off the kiln, leaving just the bottom kiln section. Again, keep the section with
  • The first thing to check is to make sure you are not putting on too thick a layer of glaze.

    Another common cause of pinholes and blistering is the firing cycle that does not match the particular clay that you are firing. Some of things in clay such as organic materials, sulfuric compounds, manganese and anything else that needs to out gas during the bisque process must be completely burned out during the bisque process. If it is not completely burned out then it may out gas during the glaze cycle and cause pinholes and blistering.

    First of all try using the standard Slow Bisque program on your control. If this still does not work then create a Vary-Fire or Custom program that will slow the bisque firing down.

    Here is an example of a typical Vary-Fire program that has been known to work well firing to Cone 05. See the Appendix E in the DynaTrol Instruction Manual for other base programs and temperatures if you are

    L&L's official recommendation is for an electrician to connect the kiln to power. You should have already figured out your voltage, phase and maximum amps available (or have the electrician involved) before buying a kiln. If you are the electrician then you will need to know what the voltage, phase and total amps are for the unit. Also, if it has a powercord or not, and if it does, what the configuration (or NEMA number) the cord's plug head is.

  • Voltage and Phase of the kiln needs to match what is available where the kiln will be located.
  • The size of the circuit breaker and wires are determined by multiplying the total amps of the kiln times 125%, then rounding up. For example a JD2927 208 volt 1 phase is a 60 amp kiln. 60 x 1.25 = 75. So 75 amps- but breakers go every 10 amps so you round up to 80 amps. 80 amps is associated with #3 copper wire. When in doubt, oversize.
  • Length of the run between the breaker and the kiln is
  • Sometimes with thick elements, especially in the corner of a DaVinci, or Easy-Load kiln, the elements will have a tendency to jump out or fall out of the corners. 
  • We do not recommend using pins to keep them in place. Instead we sell a small 1/4" high by 3/4" diameter ceramic washer that can be used to wedge the element in place. 
  • See the photograph for visual instructions.
  • These can be kept in or removed once the elements have settled in place and are in no danger of popping out of the holders.
  • Washer in corner of a kiln that has been fired:

    • We recommend that you have a carbon monoxide monitor installed into your kiln room to monitor the carbon monoxide levels. This ensures that you will be in the know if any carbon monoxide build up were to occur beyond safe levels. This would also most likely indicate that there is either a problem within the vent system or that it needs adjustment to increase flow rate.
    • You can also use a method that we call the "Smoke Method" to determine if the draw is sufficient. Here are the steps to take to help you adjust the bypass box to ensure you have optimal draw.
      • With power disconnected from the kiln and with the kiln empty, turn the vent on.
      • Start with the bypass valve in the fully closed position. This will give it the maximum suction in the kiln.
      • Light a piece of paper on fire or something that will create smoke. Blow it out, and hold it near the cracks around the closed lid.
      • If the smoke is being pulled into the kiln around these door
  • Mostly you just have to remember how each kiln is wired or look at the wire diagram. Usually in series elements the wire is big and fat, and in parallel elements they are thin. Also, individual elements ohms are always 1/2 or 1/3 (or less) the ohms of the whole circuit in a series circuit, individual element ohms are always 2 or 3 (or more) times higher than the ohms of the circuit in a parallel circuit.
  • Up until 2003, all the 8 sided and 10 sided kilns we made had 3-bolt element connection boards. They all had 2 elements in each circuit. The top element would connect to the bottom element at the center bolt. For the kilns wired in series, the center bolt had no power wires going to it, and power went to the top and bottom. In parallel there was a jumper wire from top bolt to bottom and the power wires went to the center and either the top or bottom bolts.
  • All DaVincis (except X1800 series) and J2900s and all 10 sided kilns made 2003 and later are wired
  • L&L has used a lot of different style thermocouples over the years.

    With thermocouples there are different TYPES, and within the various types there are different STYLES.

    Some different types are Type N, Type R, Type J, Type K, Type S.

    L&L uses Type K or Type S.

    Type S are expensive but very long lasting thermocouple made from Platinum and Platinum-rhodium.

    L&L uses three styles of S thermocouples:

  • T-G-SXXX/00 is a 5/16" diameter 4.75" (120mm) long thermocouple.
  • T-G-SXXX/06 is a 5/16" diameter 6.3" (160mm) long thermocouple.
  • Type K  thermocouples are inexpensive but they do not last as long as the Type S thermocouples.

    They are made from Alumel and Chromel (base alloys).

    L&L currently carries five different styles of these Type K thermocouples.

    Shelf Heights
  • Bottom shelf should be 1/2" at least or 1" at most- up off the kiln floor. If there is an element in the floor of the kiln the bottom shelf should be right under the bottom-most side element.
  • Next shelf should be 8" higher minimum (7" higher if there is an element in the kiln floor). Lower shelves near the bottom make the kiln fire slower.
  • Next shelf can be closer, with shorter posts, but should never be within 1" of a Thermocouple (Thermocouples or TCs are what is reading the temperature in the kiln- they stick into the kiln a couple inches).
  • As you near the top of the kiln it is better to not have shelves as close to each other again. It is best to have 8 inches between the top most shelf and the lid (when it is closed).
  • It is not always possible to have shelves placed like this. The kiln will fire slower with a tighter load, especially if the load is tight in the bottom of the kiln.
  • Post Placement
  • Place
  • This program is fine for slumping, tack fusing, or full fusing, just substitute different top temperatures when programming. The step in the programming marked with a "*" at the end of it is the one to change.

    For slumping use 1220 (Fahrenheit)

    For tack fusing use 1350

    For full fusing use 1480

    You may have to adjust these temps a little higher or lower depending on your tests.

    Additionally the 10 minute hold time at the highest temp may need to be adjusted longer or shorter as well. This hold time is the number entered in the next step after the step with the "*" on it.

    To enter this program do the following:

  • Set the toggle switch for the kiln to ON
  • Press ENTER, Or if it says to WAIT, do it, then look for "IDLE" to appear along with TC # and the temp inside.
  • Press the following keys:
  • 1
  • 8
  • 500
  • ENTER<
  • This program is fine for slumping, tack fusing, or full fusing.  Just substitute different top temperatures when programming. The step in the programming marked with a "*" at the end of it is the one to change.

    For slumping, use 1220 (Fahrenheit)

    For tack fusing use, 1350

    For full fusing use, 1480

    You may have to adjust these temps a little higher or lower depending on your tests.

    Additionally the 10 minute hold time at the highest temp may need to be adjusted longer or shorter as well. This hold time is the number entered in the next step after the step with the "*" on it.

    To enter this program do the following:

    Set the toggle switch for the kiln to ON, look for it to say IDLE on the display.

    Press ENTER if it does not say IDLE after 5 seconds. Look for "IDLE" to appear along with the temp reading.

    Here is what you do:

  • Press ENTER
  • Press UP/DOWN until it says
  • Turn on kiln switch.
  • Press any key to clear ErrP from display.
  • Press ENTER. The previously fired program (USr1, USr2, USr3 or USr4) will display.
  • You can choose a different program by hitting UP or DOWN until you find the program you want. Press ENTER when the correct program is displayed.
  • You will now scroll though the entire program by pressing ENTER; including dELA, SEG number and the various ramp rates, temperatures and hold times. See the Operations Tab in the kiln instructions to see what changes you need to make for firing to various cones in ceramic firing.
  • When you have reached the end of the program the display will say rEdl. Hit ENTER and the kiln will start firing.
  • At the end of the program the display will flash CPLt and the firing time. Turn kiln switch off.
  • On most L&L Kilns this is very easy to do. It is a matter of re-distributing the wires between the kiln fuses or relays and the main powerblock inside the control box.

    Kiln Models

    On Easy-Fire kilns the elements must be changed also. On Jupiter and DaVinci kilns elements do not need to be changed.

    Two section Easy-Fire kilns and the Liberty Belle kiln are not designed to accommodate a 3-pole powerblock so changing them to 3-phase would be difficult but possible.

    Dura-Fire kilns are all 1 phase only.

    Jupiter manual kilns without 30 amp fuses need completely different control boxes when going from 1 phase to 3 phase, no problem to go from 3 phase to 1 phase though.

    Powerblock Wiring Pattern

    What is important to remember is that all the kiln circuits after the main powerblock are 1 phase, on both 1 phase and on 3 phase kilns. Being 1 phase, power is carried through the circuit to the elements by just two wires.

    Press the Review button after the firing.

    This only works on DynaTrols manufactured after 2006.