High Fire Ceramics (Cone 9-10 )

High-Fire Ceramics start around cone 8 and go as high as cone 13 and even higher. The standard range is cone 9-10. The majority of your more common stoneware and porcelain clays are rated to cone 10 and are made popular by both production potters and ceramics sculptors.

Cone 10 refers the traditional high-fire ceramic range. Ceramic artists have used this number (2350 F) to fire stonewares and porcelains for the past few centuries. Recent research shows that most affects achieved at Cone 10 temperatures can be achieved at Cone 6 or mid-range temperatures with a few chemical adjustments and a lot less fuel. There are still many who feel that Cone 10 is still the ultimate temperature range for full vitrification of their clays and ultimate results. Typically crystalline and woodfire potters will still fire in this range or sometimes even hotter. The ceramic process necessary for these two specific styles requires longer, hotter firings for the desired reactions to occur. Common examples of cone 10 ceramics include german salt fired stonewares, japanese woodfired ceramics and the majority of contemporary porcelain. Crystalline Glazing is probably the most popular electric high-fire application, otherwise it is considered to be a waste in electric kilns.

The high-fire cycle is similar to the mid-range cycle with a bisque firing from anywhere between cone 012 to cone 04 and then a glaze or end-firing in the ranges mentioned above (Typically cone 9-10) High-fire ceramics are achieved using any number of different firing techniques including wood firing, salt firing, soda firing, gas firing etc.


Firing to cone 10 has its challenges. Energy and time consumption go up exponentially as you approach hotter temperatures. Similar to costs, kiln deterioration escalates with hotter temperatures as well. You can count on about half as many cone 10 firings in a standard electric kiln as you will get cone 5-6 firings, possibly less than that.


The High-Fire ceramic market is ever changing and growing. It encompasses many different areas of ceramics, most notably Japanese Ceramics and the majority of German salt-fired stoneware. This firing range is a staple of any students ceramic education and until recently was the most-popular way to achieve fully vitrified, sturdy ceramic ware.


The majority of L&L kilns are designed to reach cone 9-10 temperatures. Just because a kiln is capable of reaching cone 10, it does not mean that it should be fired that way every time. If you are looking for a kiln to consistently reach cone 10 without issue, please look at our "JH" series of kilns.

Recommended Kilns

The L&L Flagship Kiln: Six popular Easy-Fire models. Multi-Zone control. Sectional. Easy maintenance. Sizes from 2.5 to 10.2 cubic feet. Most models and voltages are Cone 10.
A Special Design Just for Crystalline Glaze. Cone 12. Multi-Zone COntrol. Type S Thermocouples. K25 firebrick. Quad elements.
Affordable front-loading kilns with professional features like an 4-1/2" K25 arched roof, door elements, cooling vent and 5" of multi-layered insulation. Multi-Zone DynaTrol. Cone 10.
Large Heavy-Duty Front-Loading Kilns. Includes 4-1/2" K25 arched roof, door elements, and 5" of multi-layered insulation. Multi-Zone DynaTrol. Cone 10.
Customizable Automatic Zoned Top-Loading Kilns - up to 45" tall. Multi-Zone control. Sectional with plug in control panel. Easy maintenance. Sizes from 2.6 to 17 cubic feet. Most models and voltages are Cone 10.
Large Square and Rectangular Production kilns. Multi-Zone Control. Floor-standing panel. Spring-loaded hinge. Sectional. Easy Maintenance. Sizes From 5 To 34.5 Cubic Feet. Cone 10.
Bell-Lift Production Kilns